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Harvard referencing

In-text referencing examples


In-Text reference

Reference List or Bibliography

Print resources



Book with one author

Direct quotation example:  ‘New furniture and equipment  were required’ (Gibbons 2007, p. 40)

Paraphrase example: Furniture had to purchased (Gibbons 2007).

Gibbons, S 2007, The academic library and the net gen student : making the connections, American Library Association, Chicago.

Book with three or more authors

Share prices will become depressed, as a result of poor management (Peirson et al. 2006)


Name first author followed by et al.

Peirson, G, Brown, R, Easton, S, Howard, P & Pinder, S 2006, Business Finance, 9th edn, McGraw-Hill, North Ryde, N.S.W.


Include all authors names in the bibliography

Book where an organisation is the author

An additional injector mounted on the inlet…(Repco Autotech 1998).

Repco Autotech 1998, Toyota Four Wheel Drive & Light Commercial Engine Management Systems, AutoTech, Melbourne.

Chapter in an edited book

Howard changed the way refugees were welcomed into Australia (Rodd 2007).

Rodd, CP 2007, ‘Boats and borders: asylum seekers and elections, 1977 and 2001’, in D Lusher & N Haslam (eds), Yearning to Breathe Free: seeking asylum in Australia, The Federation Press, Sydney, pp. 35-47.

Journal article

Dragon (2006) concludes that the treatment is holistic in its approach.

Dragon, N 2006, ‘Patient care in a technological age’, Australian Nursing Journal, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 16–19.

Newspaper article with author

Edgar (2011) states that the monument in Kew Cemetery…

Edgar, R 2011, ‘On the threshold of change’, Saturday Age, 18 June, p. 21.

Electronic resources



Electronic journal or document from library database

Muir-Cochrane et al. (2006) believe self-medication by young people…

Muir-Cochrane, E, Fereday, J, Jureidini, J, Drummond, A, & Darbyshire, P 2006, 'Self-management of medication for mental health problems by homeless young people', International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, vol. 15, no.3, pp. 163-170, (online EBSCOhost).
Include database name in brackets, no URL or viewed date required.

Ebooks – (accessed via library catalogue)

It is an awful waste (Ramsland 1992).

Ramsland, KM 1992, The art of learning, e-book, State University of New York Press, Albany, viewed 20 November 2006, EBL.

Australian Standards Online

Screens for windows and doors must..(Standards Australia 2009).

Standards Australia 2009, Construction of buildings in bushfire-prone areas, (AS 3959-2009/Amdt 1), SAI Global Limited, viewed 22 June 2011.


The purpose of Tourism and Aviation outlines…(Department of Business and Innovation 2011).

Department of Business and Innovation 2011, Tourism & Aviation, Department of Business and Innovation, viewed 10 August 2011, <>.

Web Document

Edwards (2011) asserts that Staying Home Leaving Violence is…

Edwards, R 2011, Staying home leaving violence, Social Policy Research Centre, viewed 22 June 2011, <>.


The Victorian Government (1984) outlines…

Food Act 1984 (Victoria) viewed 10th August 2011,

You Tube Video

Studying at Oxford University…(Hall 2007).

Hall, A 2007, Studying at Oxford University, online video, viewed 20 July 2011,


Jill Kitson (Lingua Franca 2007) reported that …

Lingua Franca 2007, podcast radio programme, ABC Radio National, 28 April, accessed 25 May 2007, <>.

Image from the internet

The Seychelles are off the East Coast of Africa (Pitamitz n.d.)

Pitamitz, S, n.d., Seychelles, photograph, National Geographic , viewed 7 July 2011, <>.

After the title include the description of the picture e.g. photograph, image, graph, table

Lecture notes accessed online

Psychological profiling is too subjective to…(Heaven, 2011).

Heaven, R 2011. Lecture 3: Forensic evidence, Kangan Institute, Broadmeadows, viewed 20 June 2011, <URL address>.

If notes are a print copy, do not include the URL, include the place of publication.  For example, Broadmeadows





Ignoring issues will hinder open… (Don’t hesitate, communicate! Effective communication in the office 2010)

Don’t hesitate, communicate!  Effective communication in the office 2010, DVD, Video Education Australasia, Bendigo.